- Property Dispute
- Divorce & Alimony
- Motor Accident
- Insurance Law
- Child Custody
- Trademark & Copyrigh
- Corporate Law
- Family Dispute
- Consumer Grievances
- International Laws
- Cheque Bounce
- Cyber Crime
- Arbitration & Concil
- Womens Protection
- Intellectual propert
The term criminal pertains to or involves crimes and the subsequent administration of justice accordingly. Additionally, a criminal is a person who has conducted himself in a manner causing social harm that calls for punishment according to the degree of offence as prescribed by law. There are two basic conditions for establishment of criminality: The accused must exhibit some guilt of mind or mens rea; and must actually carry out the criminal act. This is called actus reus. Criminal acts may be broadly classified into serious crimes, major offences, contravention of law or a slight or trivial breach of the legal system.
Civil cases comprise noncriminal lawsuits and usually involve disputes over private property. Civil cases are heard for contractual breach, divorce, probate, protection of intellectual property rights, negligence, encroachment, payment of compensation & damages and getting injunctions against wrongful parties. Civil cases are also known as civil proceedings, civil actions, or civil suits. Civil cases are initiated by an entity or person called a plaintiff with a claim that some other entity or person called the defendant has failed to keep his promise to the former. Both plaintiff and defendant are called litigants or parties. Civil cases are fought in both state and Supreme courts.
When an entity or individual owns something, he is said to be the owner of property. Property is generally of two types: ``Real’’ which may imply land or any other form of real estate and industrial plants; and "personal” which comprises all else. Property may also be "Common” and may be jointly held by more than one persons. There is also "Community property," a joint ownership among an individual and his spouse while "Public property," is anything that is government owned such as the state, county, districts, parks and other public facilities. The law courts have a special responsibility to clarify and enforce ownership issues.
Divorce & Alimony
The process of divorce implies the dissolution of any legalized marriage by way of a competent and recognized court. According to the fault, offences and guilt theories, a marriage is dissolvable only if either party involved in the said marriage has to his credit any matrimonial offence. There are two parties to a divorce: the guilty and the innocent and only the latter can seek a divorce. However, if both contenders are at fault, a remedy cannot be found. Divorce can also happen by mutual consent at the free will of both parties where mutual incompatibility is the main cause.
Motor accidents are said to occur when the driver of any motorized vehicle collides with another vehicle causing bodily harm to either party or both. However, there may be special circumstances when other parties, due to their negligence, are liable for any damage caused. These include: the municipality or state maintaining signs, bridges and roads; car manufacturers as also auto repair shops. The aggrieved or affected party is empowered by law to seek compensation to put him back in his original position prior to the accident. The recovery may be based on lost wages, permanent disfigurement, medical expenses and loss in earning capacity.
Insurance is a contract which stipulates that for a specified consideration, one party will undertake to pay compensation to another for any loss that relates to a specific subject if a designated hazard occurs. Insurance is basically taking protection against a certain risk and ensures mental peace. The insured needs to pay a certain sum of money, known as a premium, to his insurer who agrees to pay compensation to the former for any specific future loss. The losses that will be covered are clearly stated in the said contract, which is known as a policy. Insurance may either be life or non-life.
Child custody refers to the control, care and maintenance of any individual below the age of eighteen which a competent court usually awards to any one of his parents subsequent to a separation proceeding or divorce. In most circumstances, laws of the state stipulate that the child’s biological parents are to take all decisions regarding child rearing such as education, residence and healthcare as also religious upbringing. However, should there be any disagreement between the parents on these issues or if the law feels that they are not qualified or are otherwise unfit to take such decisions then a family or juvenile court determines custody
Immigration is the process by which an individual enters a foreign country with the intention of taking up permanent residence. Immigration status to a foreigner is usually granted to reunite him with his family members; for giving asylum to refugees fearing persecution in their native countries and to those having critical skills that a country may require. Immigration may be sponsored by a person who is already a resident of the said country but he must submit proof of appropriate financial strength to support the immigrants. Immigration is also done for employment purposes and the employer is usually the sponsor.
Trademark & Copyright
A trademark denotes a word, symbol, name or device to distinguish it from goods owned by others. Trademarks are usually used to prevent other parties from using confusingly similar marks and are registered with the Office for Trademarks and Patents. Copyright on the other hand, is protection provided to an authors of "original works” and these include literary, musical, dramatic, artistic and other specific intellectual work, both unpublished and published. There is a separate Copyright Act which gives the copyright owner an exclusive right to reproduce work copyrighted to his credit, preparation of derivative works and distribution, display and public performance of such copyrighted work.
The word corporate refers to any activity related to corporations, known to be the most common type of business organization. Such organizations are chartered by the government of the country in which they function, have their unique legal rights and are entities that are separate from their owners. A corporate entity is usually characterized by its owners’ limited liability and is empowered to issue easily transferable shares . Incorporation is the process of creating the corporation and subsequently gives the latter a unique legal standing separate from the owners. The owners are subsequently protected from personal liabilities if the corporate is used.
A landlord, according to law is the rightful owner of any apartment, house, condominium, land or any other type of real estate that is either leased or rented to any individuals or businesses, called either a tenant, lessee or renter. In the involvement of a juristic person, the nomenclature landlord is applicable. Other names for landlord are owner or lessor. If the owner is a female, then she is called a landlady while lessor is applicable to both sexes. The term landlord comes from manoralism or (seignorialism), in which landed estates owned by Mesne Lords or Lord of the Manor in medieval times were
Family disputes arise when there is conflict between family members related to each other. This may include: conflict between parents and their offspring, couples and/or siblings; step or families; and also separated couples with their own families. Such disputes may be settled by mediation through a third party known to all aggrieved parties and helps prevent expensive and time consuming litigation. Even legal advice may be sought for settlement of children’s issues, property and financial matters and in the negotiations for fair agreements. Family disputes arise mostly in cases of large estates where a prospective beneficiary has been deprived of his share.
Consumer complaints, also called customer complaints are situations where consumers express their dissatisfaction to a party responsible for such dissatisfaction. It usually concerns a problem regarding a service or product. A genuine consumer complaint is also a pointer to the manufacturer or service provider where exactly he is going wrong or lacks in terms of quality. These are usually informal in nature and are addressed directly to companies or service providers who go about resolving them. However, if the company or service provider fails to resolve the issue, the consumer may approach a Consumer Forum for award of appropriate compensation.
Taxation is the process through which a state or central government or authorized local body imposes charges on individuals and/or property for raising funds for the public’s benefit. In other words, it is the charge payable by the taxpayer to the government for providing the former with protection and other general advantages. Taxation is either in the form of direct or indirect taxes. Direct taxes are imposed on properties, businesses, or individual incomes. Indirect taxes are levied on commodities and included in their market price. For instance, value-added tax is an indirect tax levied upon added value to any commodity at its production, sales and distribution stages.
International laws are sets of rules that govern relations and settle disputes between nations. It is the basic foundation for practicing organized and stable international relations. International law is applicable only to systems that are state-based rather than private citizens. Cases pertaining to international law are usually heard in the International Criminal Court or the European Court of Human Rights. The larger part of international law is on governance based on consent. Public international law concerns relationships pertaining to treaties between nations while Private international law deals with permissible jurisdictions that may be granted to judge any legal dispute between two or more private parties as also the right jurisdiction's law which may be applicable.
Documentation may be defined as sets of documents provided on actual paper and online, digital media like compat ible discs or audio tapes. Documentation may be distributed through software products, websites as also any other digital applications. Professionals who are educated in documentation are termed documentalists. This is also called information science. Corporate communicators and technical writers are professionals who work in the sphere of documentation. Ideally, any technical writer has a background covering both subject matter and writing while also managing content or information architecture. While engaging in documentation, a technical writer collaborates with SMEs or Subject Matter Experts to first define and subsequently create relevant content to meet user needs.Specializing documentation involves Marketing Communications, Technical Communication, Legal Writing and Compliance Documentation.
Cheque bouncing occurs when a cheque cannot be honored in favor of the recipient because its writer had insufficient funds. A dishonored cheque is returned to its writer and a penalty is charged. A bounced cheque is also called a rubber, bad or dishonored cheque. According to Sec 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, the payee has the right to initiate criminal proceedings against the payer and this is a punishable offence. Alternately, the payee can re-present the bounced cheque within 6 months. However, cheques issued as gifts or loans don’t imply any legal liability and indemnifies the payer from prosecution.
Startups are new entrepreneurial ventures that may be in the form of a company, partnership or a business entity with limited liability which is designed to operate on a scalable and repeatable business model. The prime objective of startups is to innovate developmental processes, research and validation for targeted markets. These are generally fully technology centric by nature and need to be less than five years old. Moreover, their annual turnover cannot cross Rs 25 crore in any preceding financial year. A startup ceases to be one when it completes five years of operations and can claim no tax benefits thereafter.
Cybercrime refers to any criminal offense committed on the Internet, violation of Internet laws, any computer-related crime, promoting corruption or nefarious practices on the Web, disrupting Net operations by floating malevolent programs, Web stalking of victims and stealing of identity on the Net. Cybercrime is any illegal scheme which uses either email, chat rooms, websites, message boards and auctions to conduct a fraudulent transaction. Transmission of proceeds gained by fraud on the Net to banks and other financial institutions is also considered to be cybercrime. Its other facets include: Generation of spam mail; downloading spyware or viruses to the computer; and child pornography.
Arbitration & Conciliation
Arbitration is the settlement of any dispute by an unbiased third party chosen by those involved in the said dispute with the inclination to mutually agree with that third party’s judgment. An arbitrator conducts a hearing where both parties are heard and the decision is taken thereafter. Arbitration is a widely accepted method for dispute settlement and eliminates unnecessary litigation, time wastage and costs. This is an out-of-court settlement where the arbitrator's judgment is accepted as final with courts rarely reexamining them. Traditionally, commerce and labor issues came mostly under arbitration but more recently, issues related to insurance claims, antitrust and securities are being arbitrated upon.
Recovery is said to have been done when by way of a court judgment, something valuable is acquired and for which the said lawsuit was initiated. For instance, an aggrieved person or entity may recover money as damages for financial losses incurred or a physical injury. Recovery also means the actual amount that is ultimately paid and collected, or in other words, the judgment amount itself. The term recovery, however, has different meanings. In broader terms, it implies the return or coming back of something that was lost earlier. The legal context, however, strictly implies money payable as also other rights or property/properties.
A will is a written document through which any living person specifies how his estate, comprising both personal and real properties, is to be managed and/or distributed after he dies. On the demise of the person, the executor of the will is required to file for a probate wherein a court of law recognizes the validity of the will and gives permission for its execution. A trust, on the other hand, is a type of relationship which an individual creates with one or more individuals called trustees, who will perform certain duties to protect and use the former’s property for others’ benefit.
The concept of banking involves an authorized financial institution operating under a separate statute of law to receive money as deposit; check collection; issue of loans to those meeting certain requirements; discounting of commercial paper such as bills; as also other money-related functions. Banks offer opportunities to the general public to enhance their savings and are a crucial part of the economy. Finance relates to all activities encompassing budgeting & monetary relations, commercial theory, monetary exchange, expenditure, funds, investments, income, money management, monetary theory, dealings in money, pecuniary management, public revenue, monetary relations science, fiscal relations theory, wealth science, business theory and working capital.
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