- Motor Accident
- Cheque Bounce
The term criminal pertains to or involves crimes and the subsequent administration of justice accordingly. Additionally, a criminal is a person who has conducted himself in a manner causing social harm that calls for punishment according to the degree of offence as prescribed by law. There are two basic conditions for establishment of criminality: The accused must exhibit some guilt of mind or mens rea; and must actually carry out the criminal act. This is called actus reus. Criminal acts may be broadly classified into serious crimes, major offences, contravention of law or a slight or trivial breach of the legal system.
Civil cases comprise noncriminal lawsuits and usually involve disputes over private property. Civil cases are heard for contractual breach, divorce, probate, protection of intellectual property rights, negligence, encroachment, payment of compensation & damages and getting injunctions against wrongful parties. Civil cases are also known as civil proceedings, civil actions, or civil suits. Civil cases are initiated by an entity or person called a plaintiff with a claim that some other entity or person called the defendant has failed to keep his promise to the former. Both plaintiff and defendant are called litigants or parties. Civil cases are fought in both state and Supreme courts.
Motor accidents are said to occur when the driver of any motorized vehicle collides with another vehicle causing bodily harm to either party or both. However, there may be special circumstances when other parties, due to their negligence, are liable for any damage caused. These include: the municipality or state maintaining signs, bridges and roads; car manufacturers as also auto repair shops. The aggrieved or affected party is empowered by law to seek compensation to put him back in his original position prior to the accident. The recovery may be based on lost wages, permanent disfigurement, medical expenses and loss in earning capacity.
Cheque bouncing occurs when a cheque cannot be honored in favor of the recipient because its writer had insufficient funds. A dishonored cheque is returned to its writer and a penalty is charged. A bounced cheque is also called a rubber, bad or dishonored cheque. According to Sec 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, the payee has the right to initiate criminal proceedings against the payer and this is a punishable offence. Alternately, the payee can re-present the bounced cheque within 6 months. However, cheques issued as gifts or loans don’t imply any legal liability and indemnifies the payer from prosecution.
The concept of banking involves an authorized financial institution operating under a separate statute of law to receive money as deposit; check collection; issue of loans to those meeting certain requirements; discounting of commercial paper such as bills; as also other money-related functions. Banks offer opportunities to the general public to enhance their savings and are a crucial part of the economy. Finance relates to all activities encompassing budgeting & monetary relations, commercial theory, monetary exchange, expenditure, funds, investments, income, money management, monetary theory, dealings in money, pecuniary management, public revenue, monetary relations science, fiscal relations theory, wealth science, business theory and working capital.
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